# 10 SEEPAGE INTRODUCTION Onedimensional flow Flow Rate q

The software was also used to simulate the total head contours, flow vectors, and phreatic line behavior for both cases. The outcome of the simulated results showed that the dam is safe against piping. It must be remembered that the flow lines intersect the equipotential lines at right angles. The flow and equipotential lines are usually drawn in such a way that the flow elements are approximately squares. Drawing a flow net is time consuming the tedious because of the trial-and-error process involved. Once a satisfactory flow net has been drawn, it can be traced out. Some other examples of flow nets are shown in Figure2.30 and 2.31 for flow under dams.

• Buried surfaces (e.g. the base of the dam, sheet piling), which are flow lines as water cannot penetrate into such surfaces.
• The dam shown in Figure 6 is similar to that of Figure 5 except that the base length is 5 m.
• In this study, firstly two variational principles fitted to the numerical manifold method are formulated, each of which enforces the boundary conditions and the material interface continuity conditions.
• For more detail about these tests, the reader is referred to Bouwer , Schwartz and Zhang , or Butler .
• Another situation where flow can cause failure is in producing ‘quicksand’ conditions.
• For discharge seeping through the body of the dam when horizontal filter is installed we consider the section PQ.
• I ended up using geoslope, it was much easier for me to find tutorials on 2d finite problems and using the software was more straight forward than excel for me.

Figure 3.3 Finding flow direction and gradient from three observation wells. The equal head line caused by pumping bends upward , Because it’s close to the pumping well . For example – to locate nay point P on parabola draw vertical https://simple-accounting.org/ line at any distance say x from A. Taking A as centre and radius QH draw an arc cutting the vertical line through Q in point P. Several point like P can be located and base parabola drawn by joining all these points.

## Using ARCGIS for groundwater flownets/direction

Caution must be exercised because the modulus of elasticity is not the same for decompression as for compression. For Boston blue clay, the rebound modulus of elasticity is only about 50% of that for compression (Bouwer, 1978, p. 323). If subsidence has occurred for a long time, complete rebound is unlikely. Equation 3.35 is fundamental to the analysis of flow nets as developed in Chapter 5. The total pressure at a point in a porous medium is the weight per unit area of the overburden above this point. This total pressure is the sum of the pore pressure and the intergranular stress, that is, the stress due to forces transmitted from grain to grain of the rock matrix.

On the other hand, the absence of cut-off walls increases the exit gradient for about (48.705% – 63.353%) due to which at the downstream toe a high exit gradient was recorded. For the case of Hub dam, if the non-homogeneous section of the dam is without cut-off walls then seepage flux will increased which ultimately leads to a huge water loss from the dam. The results are according to the findings of and (Arshad et al., 2017), who also observed same trend for seepage flux and exit gradient for Al-Adhaim and Hub dam respectively. The 2-stage operation will allow the contractor to construct the three upper levels of struts which will be carried out at the same time together with required additional remedial works on the lower part of the D-wall. It will save a considerable amount of time as 2 types of works will be carried out at the same time but independently in technical matters.

## Analytical Method:

These functions represent a family of equipotential lines and a family of flow lines constituting what is referred to as a FLOW NET. A Coulomb-type general solution for active earth pressure on the vertical face of a retaining wall with a drainage system along the soil–structure interface is presented. The soil is cohesionless and fully saturated to the ground horizontal surface. This condition may happen during heavy rainfall and is the most critical, when the active pressure reaches its peak value. In order to solve the problem, a theoretical, closed-form solution for the water seepage through the soil is first developed. This is used in a Coulomb-type formulation, which supposes a plane failure surface inside the backfill when the wall movement is enough to put the soil mass in the active state.

### What are the properties of flow net?

Properties of flow net are as follows: The angle of intersection between each flow line and an equipotential line must be 90o which means they should be orthogonal to each other. Two flow lines or two equipotential lines can never cross each other. quantity of seepage occurs in each flow channel.

In first attempt initially a cross section for a non-homogenous section was selected to develop a FEM mesh by using SEEP/W. The units and scale for the drawing page has been set in imperial units and the axes scale was drawn to sketch the model accordingly. Then based on the coordinates obtained from AutoCAD the model was sketched. After sketching the model the domain is then created with the help of region command and dam foundation, shell, core and filter was created with different color respectively . Then by using the key-In command the material properties was calibrated and applied to each region respectively.

## Seepage Analysis of Earth Dams | Irrigation | Agriculture

Other sides of the squares are set equal to the widths as determined above. Irregularities How To Draw Flow Net Seepage By Hand are smoothed out, and the next flow line DF is drawn joining these bases.

Backward extension of the filter depends upon so many factors. But this extension may at the most be up to centre line of the dam. This filter controls seepage line and does not allow it to get exposed on D/S face of the dam. The hydraulic boundary conditions at entry and exit are known. You are correct that these maps were created based of piezometer head readings.

## seepage model or Heleshaw apparatus.

The illustration in Figure 11 also appears to be unique which is absent in all the textbooks that the authors have checked. Compared with case 1, there is a slight increase in the forces and moments on the sheet pile wall. This result appears interesting and is not reported previously.

Discusses introductory hydrogeological theory and covers other topics such as environmental hydrogeology, heat transport, earthquakes, and petroleum migration. National Research Council provides a well-documented, nonmathematical introduction to groundwater contamination, including case studies. TracerA conservative solute that is used to track the path of groundwater movement. Pressure headThe ratio of the fluid pressure intensity to the fluid specific weight; it has the dimension of length. OrganicPertaining to carbon compound usually in rings or chains and with other elements, not necessarily derived from a living organism. LeakageSeepage of water through a semipermeable layer called aquitard.

As the drainage of the aquitard squeezes fluid from its interior, the internal stress increases. This causes the compressibility to increase by a factor of 20–100 resulting in compaction that is mostly not recoverable. Decrease of the groundwater pumpage can reduce and sometimes reverse the subsidence as is currently the case in the Harris-Galveston area in south central Texas . UNESCO has published a guidebook to studies of land subsidence due to groundwater withdrawals .

• However, there are many situations in which the velocities are nearly coplanar or there is radial symmetry.
• The mesh composed of triangular, square, rectangular and trapezoidal type of elements (Arshad et al., 2015).
• Rock toe keeps seepage line well within the dam section.
• If one needs a handy bibliographical reference of publications in the groundwater field there is Van der Leeden F.

GENERAL SUGGESTIONS AND TIPS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF FLOW NETS Use as few flow lines as possible. Before starting the sketch a flow net look for important boundary conditions. Do not make fine detail adjustments until the entire flow net is approximately correct. Try to keep the number of flow channels to a whole number. Remember, flow lines do not intersect the lower boundary since itself is a flow line. Obtaining results from a rough flow net is considered adequate.